Developed by David Shotton and Silvio Peroni at the University of Oxford, the Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (SPAR) are a suite of orthogonal and complementary ontology modules for creating comprehensive machine-readable RDF metadata for all aspects of semantic publishing and referencing, available from http://purl.org/spar/ where they are further described.
The ontologies can be used either individually or in conjunction, as need dictates. Each is encoded in the Web ontology language OWL 2.0 DL. Together, they provide the ability to describe bibliographic entities such as books and journal articles, reference citations, the organization of bibliographic records and references into bibliographies, ordered reference lists and library catalogues, the component parts of documents, and publishing roles, publishing statuses and publishing workflows.
Content negotiation permits the latest version of each ontology to be viewed, employing the Live OWL Documentation Environment (LODE) to visualize each ontology in a manner optimised for human inspection when accessed from a Web browser. Alternatively, if accessed using an ontology editor such as Protege, the OWL ontology file itself is downloaded.